A varicocele is when veins become enlarged inside your scrotum (the pouch of skin that holds your testicles). These veins are called the pampiniform plexus. About 15 out of 100 men have varicoceles. It’s hard to predict which of these 15 will have fertility problems caused by their varicocele.
Primary /Secondary Male Infertility
Male infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant.
About 13 out of 100 couples can’t get pregnant with unprotected sex. There are many causes for infertility in men and women. In over a third of infertility cases, the problem is with the man. This is most often due to problems with his sperm production or with sperm delivery.
Damage to the reproductive system can cause low or no sperm. About 4 out of every 10 men with total lack of sperm (azoospermia) have an obstruction (blockage) within the tubes the sperm travel through. A birth defect or a problem such as an infection can cause a blockage.
The known causes of genetic abnormalities are most commonly detected in men with no sperm in the ejaculate (azoospermia).
Infertility is defined by the inability of a sexually active, non-contraceptive couple to achieve spontaneous pregnancy within 1 year. But the evaluation for infertility may at 6 months if the couple are above 30 years of age.
A complete medical history, physical examination and semen analysis are the essential components of male infertility evaluation.
Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition where an extra chromosome (X) is present in the man (XXY, instead of XY). Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosomal abnormality. Adult men with Klinefelter syndrome usually have small firm testes along with features of low testosterone levels. In most cases, infertility and reduced testicular volume are the only clinical features that can be detected. Leydig cell function is also commonly impaired in men with Klinefelter syndrome and thus testosterone deficiency is more frequently observed than in the general population. Rarely, more pronounced signs and symptoms of low testosterone can be present, along with congenital abnormalities including heart and kidney problems.